Category Archives: Information

Tamil Sangam – Facts and Fiction


This post was published in a blog called Karka Nirka(A blog on Tamil Literature)

We all have read lot about the Sangam. We have read that there were three Sangams, Shiva,Kuberan,Murugan were part of these Sangams . Some where down the line, the Legend and True history got mixed up. This essay is intended to separate possible facts from myths based on the critical essays written by Dr. Zvelebil.

Sangam as legend says was an Academy based in Madurai which shaped and controlled the literary,academic and cultural and linguistic life of early Tamil Nadu.

The tradition of literary academy appears in both Literary and epigraphic sources.

Literary accounts:

The most important account of Sangam legend is given in a commentary to Iraniyar Agaporul(dated between4th-6th century AD) ascribed to Nakkirar(dated 7th and 10th century). It(commentary) might be the work of either Nakkirar or work of a Nilakantan of Mucuri.

Other accounts acan be found in Tiruvalavayutaiyar tiruvilaiyatarpuranam, of Perumparrappuliyur Nampi(12th -13th century AD) and Triuvilaiyatarpuranam of Parancoti (16th – 18th cent. AD).

The legend:

According to Nakkirar, there were three sangams or Academies.

First Sangam

  • The First Sangam was based in Southern Madurai(which got submerged into sea), lasted for 4440 years and 4449 poets took part in it.
  • The members of the Sangam included gods and sages :
  • Akkatiyanar, God with with well spread entangled lock who set three cities on fire(Shiva), Murukavel who surendered the mountain and lord of wealth(Kuberan).
  • Works composed: Paripatal,Mutunarai,Mutukuru,Kalariyavirai among others.
  • The Sangam had 89 people as the Chair beginning with Kayacinavaluti and ending with Katunkon.
  • 7 Pandiyas also produced poetry in this Sangam.
  • Treatise: Akattiyam

Middle Sangam

  • The Second Sangam was situated in Kapatapuram(also submerged under sea), lasted for 3700 years and included 3700 poets.
  • Important members: Akattiyanar,Tolkappiyanar
  • Important works: Kali,Kuruku,Ventokai,Viayalamalai Agaval
  • Treatise: Akattiyam,Tolkappiyam,Maapuranam,Icainunukam,Putapuranam
  • There were 59 chairs beginning with Ventercceliyan and ending with Muttatirumaran.
  • 5 Pandiyas produced poetry in this Sangam

Last Sangam

  • The Third Sangam was situated in present Madurai(Uttara or upper Madurai) lasted for 1850 years and included 449 poets.
  • Important members: Nakkirar the son of Kanakayanar(accountant),Pernunkunrurk Kilar,Ilantirumanran
  • Works: 400 Netuntokai, 400 Kuruntokai,400 Narriani,Purananuru,Ainkurunuru , Patirruppattu,150 Kalis,70 Paripatals,Kuttu,Vari,Cirraci,Peracai and other works.
  • Treatise: Akattiyam,Tolkappiyam
  • There were 49 chairs starting with Mutattirumaran(who escaped submergence by sea) and ending with Ukkirap Peruvaluti.
  • 3 Pandiyas composed poetry in the Sangam.

Other detailed account of the legend is available in Puranas on Madurai.

But there are quite a few changes to Nakkirar’s version. In this version Nakkirar becomes head of the Sangam and adjudged the work of the poets(what we see in Thiruvilayadal Movie!). This version also incorporated additional elements like motif of the Sangam bench(i.e they compose poems,they adjudge work others etc.),the story of Tarumi(immortalized by Nagesh!) and story of Agastya coming from north and being the father of Tamil.

Textual reference:

The earliest found textual reference of Sangam is found in one of the poems of Appar in Thirupputtur Tantakam, St. 3 . I have quoted the poem below,

6.76 திருப்புத்தூர் – திருத்தாண்டகம்

மின்காட்டுங் கொடிமருங்குல் உமையாட் கென்றும்
விருப்பவன்காண் பொருப்புவலிச் சிலைக்கை யோன்காண்
நன்பாட்டுப் புலவனாய்ச் சங்க மேறி
நற்கனகக் கிழிதருமிக் கருளி னோன்காண்
பொன்காட்டக் கடிக்கொன்றை மருங்கே நின்ற
புனக்காந்தட் கைகாட்டக் கண்டு வண்டு
தென்காட்டுஞ் செழும்புறவின் திருப்புத் தூரில்
திருத்தளியான் காணவனென் சிந்தை யானே. 6.76.3

The lines நன்பாட்டுப் புலவனாய்ச் சங்க மேறி
நற்கனகக் கிழிதருமிக் கருளி னோன்காண் mean “Look at him who was gracious enough to appear in assembly (Sangam) as a poet of fine poems and presented the purse of gold to Tarumi.”(Translated by Kamil Zvelebil)

Campantar also refers to a learned body in Madurai which he calls Maturai Tokai (மதுரைத் தொகை).The poem is uoted below,

அற்றன்றி அந்தண் மதுரைத் தொகை யாக்கினானுந்
தெற்றென்ற தெய்வந் தெளியார் கரைக்கோலை தெண்ணீர்ப்
பற்றின்றிப் பாங்கெதிர் வினூரவும் பண்பு நோக்கில்
பெற்றொன் றுயர்த்த பெருமான் பெருமானு மன்றே.11

Mannikavasakar in one of his poems says உன் அடியவர் தொகை நடுவே “admist the assembly of thy saints” , else where in Tiruvasakam he also sings about sweet Tamil studied and promoted in Kutal(Madurai). I have quoted the poem below

பாருரு வாய பிறப்பறவேண்டும் பத்திமை யும்பெற வேண்டும்
சீருரு வாய சிவபெரு மானே செங் கமல மலர்போல்
ஆருரு வாயஎன் னார முதேஉன் அடியவர் தொகை நடுவே
ஓருருவாய நின் திருவருள் காட்டி என்னையும் உய்யக்கொண் டருளே. 599

Also Andal and Thirumangai Alvar have also quoted about Sanga Tamil.

This shows both Saiva and Vaishnavite poets recogonised a well established tradition of assembly of scholars or poets as early as 7th century AD. This tradition was preserved till Nakkirar’s period who then detailed this legend. A popular legend regarding the Sangam must have been prevalent and according to K.K.Pillay in A Social History of the Tamils,” with lapse of time the legend itself must have assumed different forms.”

There are few lines in the Sangam literature which might be interpreted as referring to a body of poets and Scholiasts.

In the following lines from Maturaikkanci, the poet refers to Netiyon,”Rich and land-bestowing …who learnt sublime truths from great scholars of ancient lore,gathered in assembly “
தொல் லாணை நல் லாசிரியர்
புணர்கூட் டுண்ட புகழ்சால் சிறப்பின்
நிலந்தரு திருவி னெடியோன் போல

The preface to Tolkapiyam mentions a Pandiyan Avai(பாண்டியன் அவையத்து) which may be in a long stretch of imagination interpreted as the Sangam. I am quoting the poem below

சிறப்புப்பாயிரம்

வட வேங்கடம் தென் குமரி
ஆயிடைத்
தமிழ் கூறும் நல் உலகத்து
வழக்கும் செய்யுளும் ஆயிரு முதலின்
எழுத்தும் சொல்லும் பொருளும் நாடிச்
செந்தமிழ் இயற்கை சிவணிய நிலத்தொடு
முந்து நூல் கண்டு முறைப்பட எண்ணிப்
புலம் தொகுத்தோனே போக்கு அறு பனுவல்
நிலம் தரு திருவின் பாண்டியன் அவையத்து
அறம் கரை நாவின் நான்மறை முற்றிய
அதங்கோட்டு ஆசாற்கு அரில் தபத் தெரிந்து
மயங்கா மரபின் எழுத்து முறை காட்டி
மல்கு நீர் வரைப்பின் ஐந்திரம் நிறைந்த
தொல்காப்பியன் எனத் தன் பெயர் தோற்றிப்
பல் புகழ் நிறுத்த படிமையோனே.

How ever since these are not explicit lines of reference, the conclusion that Sangam was body of scholars and poets is purely speculative .

There are also few poems in Sangam which connect Madurai and Tamil in a special way.

Puram 58.13 has the following line தமிழ்கெழு கூடல். Similar references can be seen in Kalithokai(நீள் மாட கூடலார்
புலன் நாவில் பிறந்த சொல) and Cirupanatrupadai(தமிழ்நிலை பெற்ற தாங்கரு மரபின்
மகிழ்நனைமறுகின் மதுரையும் வறிதே யுதாஅன்று).

There is no direct reference for Sangam as an “association or assembly” of poets and critics in any of the Sangam Literature (i.e from around 100 BC to around 3 cent.AD).

The meaning of the term Sangam as an “association or assembly” of poets and critics seem to be based on a Jaina Tradition found in Prakrit, according to which a Daavida Samgho was established in Madurai around 470 AD by Vajjanamdi a Jain.

There is also an very interesting point to note here. The years of each of the three Sangams are multiples of 37, first Sangam 37 x 120, second Sangam 37 x 100 and the last Sangam 37 x 50. It is well known fact that Jains had a special passion on numbers. This may give us the idea where the fictitious numbers for years of each Sangam had its origins.

Epigraphic References:

  • Cinnamanur Plates (10th century) praises Pandya to have translated Mahabratha and to have established a Sangam in the city of Madhura. According to K.A.N.Shastri and S.Krishnaswamy Aiyangar this refers to Sangam at Madurai.
  • Erukkankuti plates(9th century) praises Etticattan who had among his ancestors a poet who sat on the famous Sangam bench.According to Mu.Irakavaiyankar this may refer to Maturaik Kulavanikan Cattanar the author of Kurunthokai 349.

Rationale of the Legend:

  • Of the bulk of works quoted by Nakkirar which belonged to First academy can be very speculatively dated to 300 or 400 BC.
  • Out of all these books only Akkatiyam must have possibly survived till later part. (Only 17 verses have carried on to us from secondary sources)
  • Out of the works quoted by Nakkirar belonging to Second Academy only few lines of Mapuranam and 16 lines said to be part of ancient Icainunukam(considered much later work) have survived and carried on to us through secondary sources.
  • Out of the works quoted by Nakkirar belonging to Third Academy, 7 works have been completely preserved (Akananuru, Kurunthokai, Narrinai, Purananuru, Ainkurunuru, Kalithokai, Tolakapiyam), two in great fragments (Paripatal , Patirruppattu) and one in minor fragment (Akattiyam).
  • The years of each Sangam quoted by Nakkirar is fictitious and possibly this is due to the influence of Jains in the Sangam legend.
  • The number of poets quoted in last Sangam were 449 . The poets during that age are totally 473 poets (102 poems were anonymous poems). Out of the 473 , 35 are named after interesting line in their poem (like Orerulavanar). If we remove the 35 from 473 the total is 438 which is closer to Nakkirar’s tally. Or if we take 473 and remove authors of later period we get a tally of 459 which is also close to Nakkirar’s tally. This cannot be a mere coincidence.
  • Nakkirar’s version and later version of the Sangam legend is not completely acceptable.
  • But we cannot dismiss the academy as a pure fiction, such a legend couldn’t have arisen without any historical basis.And couldn’t have been just a Buddhist or Jain assembly of scholars.
  • There must have been some kind of assembly of scholars associated with Tamil being held at Maturai. But the some how facts and fiction have got mixed up so much that origin of either cannot be traced.
  • K.A.Nilakanta Shastri says” That a college at Madura(Sangam) may well be a fact…Some of the names of the Kings and poets are found in inscriptions and other authentic records, showing that some facts have got mixed up with fiction , so that no conclusion of value can be based on it.”

Fiction:

  • Three successive academies in Southern Madurai,Kapatapuram and Upper Madurai
  • The First academy with 4449 poets sitting in academy for 4440 years under 59 kings
  • The Middle academy with 3700 poets sitting in academy for 3700 years under 59 Pandiya Kings in Kapatapuram.
  • The last academy for 1850 years under 49 Pandiya kings.

Possible elements of Historical Truth:

  • A body of scholars and poets function as norm giving, critical college of literary experts and shifts its seat according to the geo political conditions of Pandiya kingdom.
  • Akkatiyar a pre Tolakappiayan grammarian who composed the first grammer of Tamil
  • After Akkatiyam many grammatical treatises arose, including Maapuranam and Tolkappiyam. Tolkappiyam survived in ur text and later expanded to its present shape.
  • In early historical perios, a norm giving body was established in Madurai for 250 years which comprised of 450 poets(who were authors of the anthology poems and number of works now lost).Various schools of Bardic poets regarded Akkatiyam (still in existence then) and Tolkappiyam as their authority.

Some additional information:

  • While Nakkirar wrote his commentary all the anthologies must have been compiled (i.e compiling individual poems into Akananuru,Kurunthokai etc)
  • But arrangement into Ettuthokai and pattupaattu has not taken place.
  • Tolkappiyam is acknowledged by Nakkirar as a single finished grammatical work.
  • Sanskrit tradition of Shiva being father of grammar got incorporated into the Sangam legend.
  • Murugan as the member of Sangam and one who presided over the Sangam can be attributed to his popularity of Tamil Kadavul(which I have discussed in length in my History of Murugan blog).
  • Lord of Wealth(Kuberan) should also been a popular god and possibly been associated with origins of Tamil.

Reference:

  1. Tamil Literature (1975) by Kamil Zvelebil
  2. Smile of Murugan by Kamil Zvelebil

 

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Mobile Number Portability


The most awaited mobile service MNP (Mobile Number Portability) has been introduced today in India. Now mobile phone users will be able to switch their service providers for network coverage, service quality, customer support and price related issues. The cellular service providers will be able to to switch to another operator who can offer better network coverage, service quality, customer support or price. As of MNP launched, the largest service providers in India like Idea and Vodafone may get new faces as they were promoting MNP since long time. Some Mobile Number Portability FAQ’s are here to process or switch service provider under MNP

Step1
– Send a SMS to 1900 using syntax below in your SMS

PORT <Your Mobile Number> for example PORT 8254782XXX

After sending the sms You will receive a sms having a unique porting code you can use that code in communication with new service provider for MNP switching.

Step2
– Visit your current service provider office/franchise and clear your outstanding dues or bills if any.

Step 3
– Visit the new service provider’s office/franchise, apply MNP service. Here you would need to provide the unique porting code you received in step 1.
*Remember, unique porting code has some expiry time, you should complete the process ASAP.

After you apply to New Service provider, they will take some time for the approval process from your old service provider. This may takes 4-7 days approx for completion. During this time current mobile number will remain operative as Government said to them MNP mobile number service should not be discontinued until procedure completed by both service providers, However a domain time up to 2 hours may occur during technical process of MNP.

Step 4
– Your old service provider will surely tell expected date and time they will switch off your number, while new service provider will start your service thereafter.

Step 5
MNP charges are Rs.19, these charges are for porting your current mobile phone number from one operator to another. MNP charges should be paid to new service provider only. You will get the New SIM Card from your New Service Provider.

Now all you need to do is, change your SIM card to new after MNP is completed.

Instructions for Prepaid and Postpaid Users
Both Prepaid and Postpaid can avail MNP service, infect this program is for everyone.
Prepaid account balance will not be forwarded to new service provider. All current balance will lose when you will switch to new service provider, you better consume it before.
Postpaid users should clear all outstanding bills before porting the number.

Service Portability For CDMA and GSM
Yes now CDMA numbers can be ported to GSM service or vice-versa as well. As an example, It is now possible to shift from Reliance CDMA to Idea GSM.

MNP Program Rules and Limitations
-You can’t switch the service provider second time within 90 days of first portability.
-Circle Limitations is there, MNP does not work in inter circle portability.

 

Search Tools From Google


Google the search engine giant, for most people it’s their home page. If you want to find some thing just Google it you will find that the idea of most people. It has become synonymous with internet search.

Recently I found out two interesting tools from Google to for better searching experience. They are

  1. Wonder wheel
  2. Squared

Wonder Wheel

Google Wonder Wheel is a new great feature from Google which allows you to see relevant search results to your query in a unique semantically relevant and  graphically design way.Wonder Wheel provides the user with a flash based interface having the searched query in the middle and the related queries at its branches. The text based results are still available but shifted rightwards. As the user clicks on the related query, the wonder wheel expands and the results at the right hand side of the page changes. The main aim of the wonder wheel is to guide the user to reach to the relevant resource in an intuitive manner. It’s a keyword research tool. Let’s see it by an example, when perform search for “JAVA” the results are in displayed as shown below

stan

 

Now click on the “More” link as shown

 

link

Now there will be lot of options to customize the search results. In that under All results heading select the wonder wheel tool.

wonder

Now you will see a wheel with your search phrase in the middle and related search phrases around it. The text based results will be displayed but it will be shifted to the right side.

wheel1

Now the fun starts. You can navigate your way around the relevant key words and phrases and find more and more results. It’s easy and the graphical effects make it fun. The coolest part it is when you click on the relevant phrases the text results also will get updated. The following screen shot shows with search results for “Java Tutorials”

wheel2

Google Squared

When a search is made via Google Squared, the results are presented in the form of rows and columns. Further, these results can be exported to an online spreadsheet program whereby it can be stored into a database.

Although it was presented to the group of media and people from search industry on May 12, 2009, yet it was not made public as Google’s Associate Product Manager Alex Komoroske admitted that owing to the search flaws in Google Squared. Later it was launched in Google labs. You can access it on www.google.com/Squared.

Google Squared is a semantic search product from Google. It was announced on May 12, 2009 and was launched on Google Labs on June 3, 2009. Squared was developed at Google’s New York office.It is the first significant effort by Google to understand information on the web and present it in new ways.

Google Squared extracts structured data from across the web and presents its results in spreadsheet-like format. Each search query return a table of search results which has its own set of columns – common attributes that are associated with the topic of a search. Squared is quite possibly … one of Google’s significant achievements. when I perform a search for “Prime Ministes of India”  the results will be as follows.

squared

One good feature is that we can add our own columns to existing square to make the results more feature rich.

Sources:

Wikipedia Article: http://tinyurl.com/2c5jpro

http://tinyurl.com/yzubs46

http://tinyurl.com/mx4vqb

Executing C programs in Linux


A lot of use Windows as our operating system, but of late people started using Linux along with it. This is the article for programmers who would wish to use Linux for their programming purpose.

First create a C program using your text editor. Let it be “hello.c”

Now open the terminal and type

 “$ gcc hello.c”.

Here “$” symbol is the prompt and one need not type it again.

Now gcc will create an output file called “a.out” by default.

Next you type following command  the terminal to execute the  C program

$ ./ a.out.

If you execute too many programs in the same directory then each time the a.out file will get replaced. To avoid this use the following format,

 gcc -o <outputfilename> filename.c.

In this output file  will be created with the name specified by you.

Eg: For the above program you can type

gcc -o hello hello.c.

The file will be created with the name hello. Then you can execute the program by typing   $./hello.c

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